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| Copyright Dominique Clément / Clément Consulting

Studies on funding social movement and nonprofits. Last updated: May 2017.


A downloadable introductory reading list on state funding for social movements in Canada [PDF]





Basok, Tanya, and Suzan Ilcan. 2003. “The Voluntary Sector and the Depoliticization of Civil Society: Implications for Social Justice.” International Journal of Canadian Studies 28 (1):113-132.

Beres, Melanie A., Barbara Crow, and Lise Gotell. 2009. “The Perils of Institutionalization in Neoliberal Times: Results of a National Survey of Canadian Sexual Assault and Rape Crisis Centres.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 34 (1):135-165.

Brooks, Arthur. 2000. “Is There a Dark Side to Government Support for Nonprofits?” Public Administration Review 60 (3):211-218. doi: 10.2307/977463.

Brown, Laura K., and Elizabeth Troutt. 2004. “Funding Relations Between Nonprofits and Government: A Positive Example.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33 (1):5-27.

Brushett, Kevin. 2013. ““Federally Financed Felquistes”: The Company of Young Canadians and the Prelude to the October Crisis.” Quebec Studies 55 (Spring/Summer):77-99.

Burt, Sandra. 1990. “Canadian Women’s Groups in the 1980s: Organizational Development and Policy Influence.” Canadian Public Policy 16 (1):17-28.

Campbell, Rebecca, Charlene K. Baker, and Terri L. Mazurek. 1998. “Remaining radical? Organizational predictors of rape crisis centers’ social change initiatives.” American Journal of Community Psychology 26 (3):457-483.

Carroll, Noel. 1987. “Can Government Funding of the Arts Be Justified Theoretically?” Journal of Aesthetic Education 21 (1):21-35.

Chaves, Mark, Laura Stephens, and Joseph Galaskiewicz. 2004. “Does Government Funding Suppress Nonprofits’ Political Activity?” American Sociological Review 69 (2):292-316.

Child, Curtis D., and Kirsten A. Gronbjerg. 2007. “Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations: Their Characteristics and Activities.” Social Science Quarterly 88 (1):259-281. doi: 10.2307/42956182.

Chouinard, Vera. 1989. “Transformations in the capitalist state: the development of legal aid and legal clinics in Canada.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 14 (3):329349.

Clément, Dominique. 2005. “An Exercise in Futility? Regionalism, State Funding and Ideology as Obstacles to the Formation of a National Social Movement Organization in Canada.” BC Studies 146:63-91.

Clément, Dominique. 2009. “Generations and the Transformation of Social Movements in Post-war Canada.” Histoire Sociale/Social History 42 (84):361-388.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine. 2016. “Funding for Social Movements.” Sociology Compass 10 (4):330-339.

Cress, Daniel M. 1997. “Nonprofit Incorporation Among Movements of the Poor: Pathways And Consequences For Homeless Social Movement Organizations.” The Sociological Quarterly 38 (2):343-360.

Dobrowolsky, Alexandra. 2004. “The Chrétien Legacy and Women: Changing Policy Priorities with Little Cause for Celebration.” Review of Constitutional Studies 9 (1):171-198.

Ebaugh, Helen Rose, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, and Paula F. Pipes. 2005. “Faith-Based Social Service Organizations and Government Funding: Data from a National Survey.” Social Science Quarterly 86 (2):273-292. doi: 10.2307/42956063.

Edwards, Michael, and David Hulme. 1996. “Too Close for Comfort? The Impact of Official Aid on Nongovernmental Organizations.” World Development 24 (6):961-973.

Garland, Keesling, and Shohreh A. Kaynama. 1996. “The Funding for HIV/AIDS: Implications for Strategic Development by Nonprofit Organizations.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 4 (4):49-60. doi: 10.2307/40469825.

Garon, Francis, and Pascale Dufour. 2010. “Comprendre la mise en oeuvre différenciée d’une politique publique: le cas d’une politique de gouvernance au Québec.” Revue canadienne de science politique 43 (3):607-631.

Guo, Chao. 2007. “When Government Becomes the Principal Philanthropist: The Effects of Public Funding on Patterns of Nonprofit Governance.” Public Administration Review 67 (3):458-473. doi: 10.2307/4624589.

Haines, Herbert H. 1984. “Black Radicalization and the Funding of Civil Rights.” Social Problems 32 (1):31-43.

Hellinger, Doug. 1987. “NGOs and the Large Aid Donors: Changing the Terms of Engagement.” World Development 15 (1):1.

Jalali, Rita. 2013. “Financing Empowerment? How Foreign Aid to Southern NGOs and Social Movements Undermines Grass-Roots Mobilization.” Sociology Compass 7 (1):55-73.

Jang, Hee Soun, and Richard C. Feiock. 2007. “Public versus Private Funding of Nonprofit Organizations: Implications for Collaboration.” Public Performance & Management Review 31 (2):174-190.

Jenkins, J. Craig, and Craig M. Eckert. 1986. “Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social MovementOrganizations in the Development of the Black Movement.” American Sociological Review 51 (6):812-829.

Jennifer E. Mosley. 2010. “Organizational Resources and Environmental Incentives: Understanding the Policy Advocacy Involvement of Human Service Nonprofits.” Social Service Review 84 (1):57-76. doi: 10.1086/652681.

Jenson, Jane, and Susan D. Phillips. 1996. “Regime Shift: New Citizenship Practices in Canada.” International Journal of Canadian Studies 14 (1):111-136.

Jenson, Jane, and Denis Saint-Martin. 2003. “New Routes to Social Cohesion? Citizenship and the Social Investment State.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 28 (1):77-99.

Knight, Melanie, and Kathleen Rodgers. 2012. ““The Government Is Operationalizing Neoliberalism”: Women’s Organizations, Status of Women Canada, and the Struggle for Progressive Social Change in Canada.” Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research 20 (4):266-282.

Kohl-Arenas, Erica. 2014. “Will the Revolution be Funded? Resource Mobilization and the California Farm Worker Movement.” Social Movement Studies 13 (4):482-498.

Krashinsky, Michael. 1990. “Management Implications of Government Funding of Nonprofit Organizations: Views from the United States and Canada.” Nonprofit Management 1 (1):39-54.

Laforest, Rachel, and Michael Orsini. 2005. “Evidence-based Engagement in the Voluntary Sector: Lessons from Canada.” Social Policy and Administration 39 (5):481-497.

Lampkin, Lynne, and Kamala Raghavan. 2008. “Organizational Characteristics, Financial Performance Measures, and Funding Sources of Faith Based Organizations.” Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 31 (3):332-355. doi: 10.2307/41288093.

Luksetich, William. 2007. “Government Funding and Nonprofit Organizations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 37 (3):434-454.

Masson, Dominique. 1999/2000. “Constituting ‘Post-Welfare State’ Welfare Arrangements: The Role of Women’s Movement Service Groups in Québec.” Resources for Feminist Research 27 (3-4):49-70.

Masson, Dominique. 2012. “Changing State Forms, Competing State Projects: Funding Women’s Organizations in Quebec.” Studies in Political Economy 89 (1):79-104.

McLevey, John. 2014. “Think Tanks, Funding, and the Politics of Policy Knowledge in Canada.” Canadian Sociological Association/La Soci´et´e canadienne de sociologie 51 (1):55-73.

Middleton, Stone Melissa, Mark A. Hager, and Jennifer J. Griffin. 2001. “Organizational Characteristics and Funding Environments: A Study of a Population of United Way-Affiliated Nonprofits.” Public Administration Review 61 (3):276-289. doi: 10.2307/977600.

O’Regan, Katherine, and Sharson Oster. 2002. “Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governonce? Evidence from New York City Nonprofit Controctors.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21 (3):359-379.

Ostrander, Susan A. 2007. “The Growth of Donor Control: Revisiting the Social Relations of Philanthropy.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36 (2):356-72.

Peter, Karl. 1978. “Editorial: Multi-Cultural Politics, Money and the Conduct of Canadian Ethnic Studies.” Canadian Ethnic Studies Association Bulletin:2-3.

Phillips, Susan D. 2000. “More than Stakeholders: Reforming State-Voluntary Sector Relations.” Journal of Canadian Studies 35 (4):182-204.

Ramos, Howard. 2006. “What Causes Canadian Aboriginal Protest? Examining Resources, Opportunities and Identity, 1951–2000.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 31 (2):211-235.

Ramos, Howard. 2008. “Opportunity for Whom?: Political Opportunity and Critical Events in Canadian Aboriginal Mobilization, 1951-2000.” Social Forces 87 (2):795-824.

Reinelt, Claire. 1994. “Fostering Empowerment, Building Community: The Challenge for State-Funded Feminist Organizations.” Human Relations 47 (6):685-706.

Rodgers, Kathleen, and Melanie Knight. 2011. ““You just felt the collective wind being knocked out of us”: The deinstitutionalization of feminism and the survival of women’s organizing in Canada.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6):570-581.

Saidal, Judith R. 1991. “Resource Interdependence: The Relationship Between State Agencies and Nonprofit Organizations.” Public Administration Review 51 (6):543-555.

Saidel, Judith R. 1991. “Resource Interdependence: The Relationship Between State Agencies and Nonprofit Organizations.” Public Administration Review 51 (6):543-555.

Scheitle, Christopher P. 2009. “Identity and Government Funding in Christian Nonprofits.” Social Science Quarterly 90 (4):816-833. doi: 10.2307/42940642.

Shaw, Sally, and Justine B. Allen. 2006. “”We Actually Trust the Community:” Examining the Dynamics of a Nonprofit Funding Relationship in New Zealand.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 17 (3):211-220.

Smith, Miriam. 2005. “Diversity and Identity in the Non-profit Sector: Lessons from LGBT Organizing in Toronto.” Social Policy and Administration 39 (5):463-280.

Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1988. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.” American Sociological Review 53 (4):585-606.

Stasiulis, Daiva K. 1980. “The Political Structuring of Ethnic Community Action: A Reformulation.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 12 (3):20-46.

Tomiak, Julie. 2016. “Navigating the contradictions of the shadow state: the Assembly of First Nations, state funding, and scales of Indigenous resistance.” Studies in Political Economy 97 (3):217-233.

White, Deena. “Interest representation and organisation in civil society: Ontario and Quebec compared.” British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (2):199-232.

White, Deena. 2012. “Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec compared.” British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (1):199-229.


Anheier, Helmut K., and David C. Hammack, eds. 2010. American Foundations: Roles and Contributions. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Boris, Elizabeth T., and C. Eugene Steuerle, eds. 1999. Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict. Washington: Urban Institute Press.

Burlingame, Dwight F., and Warren F. Ilchman, eds. 1996. Alternative Revenue Sources: Prospects, Requirements and Concerns for Nonprofits. Edited by Robert E. Fogal and Dwight F. Burlingame. Vol. 12, New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising. Stow: Jossey-Bass.

Campbell, Robert M., and Leslie A. Pal. 1994. The Real Worlds of Canadian Politics: Cases in Process and Policy, Third Edition. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Clément, Dominique. 2008. Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-1982. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Cloward, R.A., and F.F. Piven. 1977. Poor Peoples Movements: How they Succeed, Why they Fail. New York: Pantheon.

Faber, Daniel, and Deborah McCarthy, eds. 2005. Foundations for Social Change: Critical Perspectives on Philanthropy and Popular Movements. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Grønbjerg, Kristen A. 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Harder, Lois. 2003. State of Struggle: Feminism and Politics in Alberta. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

Hayday, Matthew. 2005. Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Knopff, Rainer, and F. L. Morton. 2000. The Charter Revolution and the Court Party. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2009. The Conservative Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting Edge. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2011. Voluntary Sector Organizations and the State: Building New Relations. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Laforest, Rachel, ed. 2013. Government-Nonprofit Relations in Times of Recession. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Lester, M. Salamon. 2012. The State of Nonprofit America. 2 ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

MacDonald, L. 1997. Supporting civil society: The political role of nongovernmental organizations in Central America. New York: MacMillan.

Matthews, Nancy. 1994. Confronting Rape: The Feminist Anti-Rape Movement and the State. New York: Routledge.

Ostrander, Susan A. 1995. Money for Change: Social Movement Philanthropy at Haymarket People’s Fund: Temple University Press.

Ottaway, Marina, and Thomas Carothers. 2012. Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Pal, Leslie. 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Salamon, Lester M. 1995. Partners in Public Service: Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Scott, Katherine. 2003. Funding Matters: The Impact of Canada’s New Funding Regime on Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine, and Deborah Pike. 2005. Funding Matters…For Our Communities: Challenges and Opportunities for Funding Innovation in Canada’s Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine, Spyridoula Tsoukalas, Paul Roberts, and David Lasby. 2006. The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Ontario. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Smith, Brian H. 1990. More Than Altruism: The Politics of Private and Foreign Aid. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Smith, Miriam. 2005. A Civil Society? Collective Actors in Canadian Political Life. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Smith, Miriam. 2007. Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Smith, Steven Rathgeb, and M. Lipsky. 1993. Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Tennant, Paul. 1990. Aboriginal Peoples and Politics: The Indian Land Question in British Columbia, 1849-1989. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Tillotson, Shirley. 2008. Contributing Citizens: Modern Charitable Fundraising and the Making of the Welfare State. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Wine, Jeri, and Janice Ristock, eds. 1991. Women and Social Change: Feminist Activism in Canada. Toronto: James Lorimar and Company.

Readings lists on the topic of state funding for social movements

All information sources from and the database should be acknowledged by the User and cited as follows:


  • Clément, Dominique. “Title of Page or Document.” State Funding for Social Movements. Accessed [date accessed, e.g. 28 July 2020]


Clément, Dominique. State Funding for Social Movements Database. Accessed [date accessed, e.g. 28 July 2020]

Canada’s Human Rights History explores the history of human rights activism in Canada.