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| Copyright Dominique Clément / Clément Consulting

Studies on public funding for the nonprofit sector. Last updated: May 2020.

 

A downloadable introductory reading list on state funding for social movements in Canada [PDF]

 

 

 

Historical Context

Clément, Dominique. 2008. Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-1982. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Clément, Dominique. 2017. “State Funding for Human Rights Activism: Channeling Protest?”  American Behavioral Scientist 61 (13):1703-1728.

Clément, Dominique. 2019. “How the State Shaped the Nonprofit Sector: Public Funding in British Columbia.”  Canadian Review of Sociology 56 (3):299-328.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine, and Mabel Ho. 2015. “How the State Shapes Social Movements: An Examination of the Environmental Movement in Canada.” In Protest and Politics: The Promise of the Social Movement Society, edited by Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers, 101-117. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2011. Voluntary Sector Organizations and the State: Building New Relations. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Masson, Dominique. 2012. “Changing State Forms, Competing State Projects: Funding Women’s Organizations in Quebec.”  Studies in Political Economy 89 (1):79-104.

Masson, Dominique. 2015. “Institutionalization, State Funding and Advocacy.” In Protest and Politics: The Promise of the Social Movement Society, edited by Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers, 61-78. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Pal, Leslie. 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Phillips, Susan D. 2009. “The Harper Government and the Voluntary Sector: Whither a Policy Agenda?” In The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting edge, edited by Rachel Laforest, 7-34. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Ramos, Howard, and Janelle Young. 2018. “Critical Events and the Funding of Indigenous Organizations.”  Journal of Canadian Studies 52 (2):570-590.

Rodgers, Kathleen, and Melanie Knight. 2011. ““You just felt the collective wind being knocked out of us”: The Deinstitutionalization of Feminism and the Survival of Women’s Organizing in Canada.”  Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6):570-581.

Scott, Katherine. 2003. Funding Matters: The Impact of Canada’s New Funding Regime on Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Stasiulis, Daiva Kristina. 1982. “Race, Ethnicity and the State: The Political Structuring of South Asian and West Indian Communal Action in Combating Racism.” PhD PhD, University of Toronto.

Tomiak, Julie. 2016. “Navigating the Contradictions of the Shadow State: The Assembly of First Nations, State Funding, and Scales of Indigenous Resistance.”  Studies in Political Economy 97 (3):217-233.

White, Deena. 2012. “Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec compared.”  British Journal of Canadian Studies 25:199-229.

Books

Blackwood, Amy S., Katie L. Roeger, and Sarah L. Pettijohn. 2012. The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering. Washington: Urban Institute.

Clément, Dominique. 2008. Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-1982. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Elson, Peter R., ed. 2016. Funding Policies and the Nonprofit Sector in Western Canada: Evolving Relationships in a Changing Environment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hall, Michael H., Cathy W. Barr, M. Easwaramoorthy, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Lester M. Salamon. 2005. The Canadian Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Comparative Perspective. Toronto: Imagine Canada.

Harder, Lois. 2003. State of Struggle: Feminism and Politics in Alberta. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2011. Voluntary Sector Organizations and the State: Building New Relations. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Laforest, Rachel, ed. 2013. Government-Nonprofit Relations in Times of Recession. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Lowe, Philip, and Jane Goyder. 1983. Environmental Groups in Politics. London: Allen & Unwin.

Ng, Roxana. 1996. The Politics of Community Services: Immigrant Women, Class and State. Halifax: Fernwood Press.

Ng, Roxana, Gillian Walker, and Jacob Muller, eds. 1990. Community Organization and the Canadian State. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Pal, Leslie. 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Scott, Katherine. 2003. Funding Matters: The Impact of Canada’s New Funding Regime on Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine. 2006. Pan-Canadian Funding Practices in Communities: Challenges and Opportunities for the Government of Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine, Spyridoula Tsoukalas, Paul Roberts, and David Lasby. 2006. The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Ontario. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Stasiulis, Daiva Kristina. 1982. “Race, Ethnicity and the State: The Political Structuring of South Asian and West Indian Communal Action in Combating Racism.” PhD PhD, University of Toronto.

Tillotson, Shirley. 2008. Contributing Citizens: Modern Charitable Fundraising and the Making of the Welfare State. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Articles

Basok, Tanya, and Suzan Ilcan. 2003. “The Voluntary Sector and the Depoliticization of Civil Society: Implications for Social Justice.”  International Journal of Canadian Studies 28 (1):113-132.

Beer, Sarah, and Francine Tremblay. 2014. “Sex Workers’ Rights Organizations and Government Funding in Canada.” In Negotiating Sex Work: Unintended Consequences of Policy and Activism, edited by Samantha Majic and Carisa R. Showden, 287-309. University of Minnesota Press.

Beres, Melanie A., Barbara Crow, and Lise Gotell. 2009. “The Perils of Institutionalization in Neoliberal Times: Results of a National Survey of Canadian Sexual Assault and Rape Crisis Centres.”  Canadian Journal of Sociology 34 (1):135-165.

Brown, Laura K., and Elizabeth Troutt. 2004. “Funding Relations Between Nonprofits and Government: A Positive Example.”  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33 (1):5-27.

Brushett, Kevin. 2013. ““Federally Financed Felquistes”: The Company of Young Canadians and the Prelude to the October Crisis.”  Quebec Studies 55 (Spring/Summer):77-99.

Chaves, Mark, Laura Stephens, and Joseph Galaskiewicz. 2004. “Does Government Funding Suppress Nonprofits’ Political Activity?”  American Sociological Review 69 (2):292-316.

Chin, John J. 2018. “Service-Providing Nonprofits Working in Coalition to Advocate for Policy Change.”  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 47 (1):27-48.

Chouinard, Vera, and Valorie A. Crooks. 2008. “Negotiating Neoliberal Environments in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada: Restructuring of State – Voluntary Sector Relations and Disability Organizations’ Struggles to Survive.”see research notes.

Clément, Dominique. 2009. “Generations and the Transformation of Social Movements in Post-war Canada.”  Histoire Sociale/Social History 42 (84):361-388.

Clément, Dominique. 2017. “State Funding for Human Rights Activism: Channeling Protest?”  American Behavioral Scientist 61 (13):1703-1728.

Clément, Dominique. 2019. “How the State Shaped the Nonprofit Sector: Public Funding in British Columbia.”  Canadian Review of Sociology 56 (3):299-328.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine. 2016. “Funding for Social Movements.”  Sociology Compass 10 (4):330-339.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine, and Mabel Ho. 2015. “How the State Shapes Social Movements: An Examination of the Environmental Movement in Canada.” In Protest and Politics: The Promise of the Social Movement Society, edited by Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers, 101-117. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine, and Mabel Ho. 2017. “Concentrating or Sprinkling? Federal Funding for Indigenous, Women’s, and Environmental NGOs in Canada, 1972-2014.”  American Behavioral Scientist 61 (13):1599-1622.

Dobrowolsky, Alexandra. 2004. “The Chrétien Legacy and Women: Changing Policy Priorities with Little Cause for Celebration.”  Review of Constitutional Studies 9 (1):171-198.

Eliadis, Pearl. 2015. “Dismantling Democracy: Stifling Debate and Dissent for Civil Society and Indigenous Peoples.” In The Harper Record, 2008-2015, edited by T. Healy, 37-75. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

Guo, Chao. 2007. “When Government Becomes the Principal Philanthropist: The Effects of Public Funding on Patterns of Nonprofit Governance.”  Public Administration Review May/June:458-74.

Ilcan, Suzan, and Tanya Basok. 2004. “Community Government: Voluntary Agencies, Social Justice, and the Responsibilization of Citizens.”  Citizenship Studies 8 (2):129-44.

Jalali, Rita. 2013. “Financing Empowerment? How Foreign Aid to Southern NGOs and Social Movements Undermines Grass-Roots Mobilization.”  Sociology Compass 7 (1):55-73.

Jenkins, J. Craig. 1998. “Channeling Social Protest: Foundation Patronage of Contemporary Social Movements.” In Private Action and the Public Good, edited by Walter W. Powell and Elisabeth S. Clemens, 206-217. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jenkins, J. Craig, Jason T. Carmichael, Robert J. Brulle, and Heather Boughton. 2018. “Foundation Funding of the Environmental Movement.”  American Behavioral Scientist 61 (13):1640-1657.

Jenson, Jane, and Susan D. Phillips. 1996. “Regime Shift: New Citizenship Practices in Canada.”  International Journal of Canadian Studies 14 (1):111-136.

Kay, Emma, and Howard Ramos. 2017. “Do Subnational Governments Fund Organizations in Neoliberal Times? The Role of Critical Events in Provincial Funding of Women’s Organizations.”  American Behavioral Scientist 61 (13):1658-1677.

Knight, Melanie, and Kathleen Rodgers. 2012. ““The Government Is Operationalizing Neoliberalism”: Women’s Organizations, Status of Women Canada, and the Struggle for Progressive Social Change in Canada.”  Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research 20 (4):266-282.

Kohl-Arenas, Erica. 2014. “Will the Revolution be Funded? Resource Mobilization and the California Farm Worker Movement.”  Social Movement Studies 13 (4):482-498.

Krawchenko, Tamara, and Christopher Stoney. 2015. “Leaner and Meaner: Government Spending from Stimulus to Austerity.” In The Harper Record, 2008-2015, edited by T. Healy, 281-290. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

Laforest, Rachel. 2012. “Rerouting Political Representation: Is Canada’s Social Infrastructure in Crisis?”  British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (2):182-201.

Laforest, Rachel, ed. 2013a. Government-Nonprofit Relations in Times of Recession. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2013b. “Muddling Through Government-Nonprofit Relations in Canada.” In Government-Nonprofit Relations in Times of Recession, 9-18. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Laforest, Rachel, and Michael Orsini. 2005. “Evidence-based Engagement in the Voluntary Sector: Lessons from Canada.”  Social Policy and Administration 39 (5):481-497.

Loney, Martin. 1972. “A Political Economy of Citizen Participation.” In The Canadian State: Political Economy and Political Power, edited by Leo Pantich, 447-460. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Lu, Jiahuan, and Jianzhi Zhao. 2019. “Does Government Funding Make Nonprofits Administratively Inefficient? Revisiting the Link.”  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 48 (6):1143-61.

Markowitz, Lisa, and Karen W. Tice. 2002. “Paradoxes and Professionalization: Parallel Dilemmas in Women’s Organizations in the Americas.”  Gender & Society 16 (6):941-958.

Masson, Dominique. 1999/2000. “Constituting ‘Post-Welfare State’ Welfare Arrangements: The Role of Women’s Movement Service Groups in Québec.”  Resources for Feminist Research 27 (3-4):49-70.

Masson, Dominique. 2012. “Changing State Forms, Competing State Projects: Funding Women’s Organizations in Quebec.”  Studies in Political Economy 89 (1):79-104.

Masson, Dominique. 2015. “Institutionalization, State Funding and Advocacy.” In Protest and Politics: The Promise of the Social Movement Society, edited by Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers, 61-78. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Matthews, Nancy. 1995. “Feminist Clashes with the State: Tactical Choices by State-Funded Rape Crisis Centres.” In Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement, edited by Myra Max Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin, 291-305. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

McLevey, John. 2014. “Think Tanks, Funding, and the Politics of Policy Knowledge in Canada.”  Canadian Sociological Association/La Soci´et´e canadienne de sociologie 51 (1):55-73.

Minkoff, Debra, and Jon Agnone. 2010. “Consolidating Social Change: The Consequences of Foundation Funding for Developing Social Movement Infrastructures.” In American Foundations: Roles and Contributions, edited by David C. Hammack and Halmut K. Anheier, 347-368. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Neumayr, Michaela, Ulrike Schneider, and Michael Meyer. 2015. “Public Funding and Its Impact on Nonprofit Advocacy.”  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 44 (2):297-318.

Ng, Roxana. 1990. “State Funding to a Community Employment Center: Implications for Working with Immigrant Women.” In Community Organization and the Canadian State, edited by Roxana Ng, Gillian Walker and Jacob Muller. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Nickel, Sarah. 2014. ““You’ll probably tell me that your grandmother was an Indian princess”: Identity, Community, and Politics in the Oral History of the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs, 1969-1980.”  Oral History Forum d’histoire orale 34 (1):1-19.

Nickel, Sarah A. 2017. ““I Am Not a Women’s Libber Although Sometimes I Sound Like One”: Indigenous Feminism and Politicized Motherhood.”  American Indian Quarterly 41 (4):299-337.

Phillips, Susan D. 2000. “More than Stakeholders: Reforming State-Voluntary Sector Relations.”  Journal of Canadian Studies 35 (4):182-204.

Phillips, Susan D. 2009. “The Harper Government and the Voluntary Sector: Whither a Policy Agenda?” In The New Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting edge, edited by Rachel Laforest, 7-34. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Ramos, Howard. 2006. “What Causes Canadian Aboriginal Protest? Examining Resources, Opportunities and Identity, 1951–2000.”  Canadian Journal of Sociology 31 (2):211-235.

Ramos, Howard. 2008. “Opportunity for Whom?: Political Opportunity and Critical Events in Canadian Aboriginal Mobilization, 1951-2000.”  Social Forces 87 (2):795-824.

Ramos, Howard, and Janelle Young. 2018. “Critical Events and the Funding of Indigenous Organizations.”  Journal of Canadian Studies 52 (2):570-590.

Reinelt, Claire. 1994. “Fostering Empowerment, Building Community: The Challenge for State-Funded Feminist Organizations.”  Human Relations 47 (6):685-706.

Reinelt, Claire. 1995. “Moving onto the Terrain of the State: The Battered Women’s Movement and the Politics of Engagement.” In Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement, edited by Myra Max Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin, 84-104. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Rodgers, Kathleen, and Melanie Knight. 2011. ““You just felt the collective wind being knocked out of us”: The Deinstitutionalization of Feminism and the Survival of Women’s Organizing in Canada.”  Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6):570-581.

Schreader, Alicia. 1990. “The State Funded Women’s Movement: A Case of Two Political Agendas.” In Community Organization and the Canadian State, edited by Roxana Ng, Gillian Walker and Jacob Muller. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Smith, Steven Rathgeb. 1989. “Federal Funding, Nonprofit Agencies, and Victim Services.” In Services for Sale: Purchasing Health and Human Services, edited by Harold W. Demone Jr. and Margaret Gibelman, 215-227. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Smith, Steven Rathgeb. 1999. “Government Financing of Nonprofit Activity.” In Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict, edited by Elizabeth T. Boris and C. Eugene Steuerle, 177-212. Washington: Urban Institute Press.

Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1988. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.”  American Sociological Review 53 (4):585-606.

Stasiulis, Daiva K. 1980. “The Political Structuring of Ethnic Community Action: A Reformulation.”  Canadian Ethnic Studies 12 (3):20-46.

Stick, Max, and Howard Ramos. 2020. “Does Municipal Funding of Organizations Reflect Communities of Need? Exploring Trends in Halifax, 1996-2016.”  Urban Research & Practice forthcoming.

Tomiak, Julie. 2016. “Navigating the Contradictions of the Shadow State: The Assembly of First Nations, State Funding, and Scales of Indigenous Resistance.”  Studies in Political Economy 97 (3):217-233.

White, Deena. 2012a. “Interest representation and organisation in civil society: Ontario and Quebec compared.”  British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (2):199-232.

White, Deena. 2012b. “Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec compared.”  British Journal of Canadian Studies 25:199-229.


Readings lists on the topic of state funding for social movements


All information sources from statefunding.ca and the database should be acknowledged by the User and cited as follows:

Website:

  • Clément, Dominique. “Title of Page or Document.” State Funding for Social Movements. Accessed [date accessed, e.g. 28 July 2020] www.statefunding.ca.

Database:

Clément, Dominique. State Funding for Social Movements Database. Accessed [date accessed, e.g. 28 July 2020] www.database.statefunding.ca


Canada’s Human Rights History explores the history of human rights activism in Canada.