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| Copyright Dominique Clément / Clément Consulting

Studies on funding social movement and nonprofits. Last updated: May 2017.


A downloadable introductory reading list on state funding for social movements in Canada [PDF]





Basok, Tanya, and Suzan Ilcan. 2003. “The Voluntary Sector and the Depoliticization of Civil Society: Implications for Social Justice.” International Journal of Canadian Studies 28 (1):113-132.

Beres, Melanie A., Barbara Crow, and Lise Gotell. 2009. “The Perils of Institutionalization in Neoliberal Times: Results of a National Survey of Canadian Sexual Assault and Rape Crisis Centres.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 34 (1):135-165.

Brooks, Arthur. 2000. “Is There a Dark Side to Government Support for Nonprofits?” Public Administration Review 60 (3):211-218. doi: 10.2307/977463.

Brown, Laura K., and Elizabeth Troutt. 2004. “Funding Relations Between Nonprofits and Government: A Positive Example.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33 (1):5-27.

Brushett, Kevin. 2013. ““Federally Financed Felquistes”: The Company of Young Canadians and the Prelude to the October Crisis.” Quebec Studies 55 (Spring/Summer):77-99.

Burt, Sandra. 1990. “Canadian Women’s Groups in the 1980s: Organizational Development and Policy Influence.” Canadian Public Policy 16 (1):17-28.

Campbell, Rebecca, Charlene K. Baker, and Terri L. Mazurek. 1998. “Remaining radical? Organizational predictors of rape crisis centers’ social change initiatives.” American Journal of Community Psychology 26 (3):457-483.

Carroll, Noel. 1987. “Can Government Funding of the Arts Be Justified Theoretically?” Journal of Aesthetic Education 21 (1):21-35.

Chaves, Mark, Laura Stephens, and Joseph Galaskiewicz. 2004. “Does Government Funding Suppress Nonprofits’ Political Activity?” American Sociological Review 69 (2):292-316.

Child, Curtis D., and Kirsten A. Gronbjerg. 2007. “Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations: Their Characteristics and Activities.” Social Science Quarterly 88 (1):259-281. doi: 10.2307/42956182.

Chouinard, Vera. 1989. “Transformations in the capitalist state: the development of legal aid and legal clinics in Canada.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 14 (3):329349.

Clément, Dominique. 2005. “An Exercise in Futility? Regionalism, State Funding and Ideology as Obstacles to the Formation of a National Social Movement Organization in Canada.” BC Studies 146:63-91.

Clément, Dominique. 2009. “Generations and the Transformation of Social Movements in Post-war Canada.” Histoire Sociale/Social History 42 (84):361-388.

Corrigall-Brown, Catherine. 2016. “Funding for Social Movements.” Sociology Compass 10 (4):330-339.

Cress, Daniel M. 1997. “Nonprofit Incorporation Among Movements of the Poor: Pathways And Consequences For Homeless Social Movement Organizations.” The Sociological Quarterly 38 (2):343-360.

Dobrowolsky, Alexandra. 2004. “The Chrétien Legacy and Women: Changing Policy Priorities with Little Cause for Celebration.” Review of Constitutional Studies 9 (1):171-198.

Ebaugh, Helen Rose, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, and Paula F. Pipes. 2005. “Faith-Based Social Service Organizations and Government Funding: Data from a National Survey.” Social Science Quarterly 86 (2):273-292. doi: 10.2307/42956063.

Edwards, Michael, and David Hulme. 1996. “Too Close for Comfort? The Impact of Official Aid on Nongovernmental Organizations.” World Development 24 (6):961-973.

Garland, Keesling, and Shohreh A. Kaynama. 1996. “The Funding for HIV/AIDS: Implications for Strategic Development by Nonprofit Organizations.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 4 (4):49-60. doi: 10.2307/40469825.

Garon, Francis, and Pascale Dufour. 2010. “Comprendre la mise en oeuvre différenciée d’une politique publique: le cas d’une politique de gouvernance au Québec.” Revue canadienne de science politique 43 (3):607-631.

Guo, Chao. 2007. “When Government Becomes the Principal Philanthropist: The Effects of Public Funding on Patterns of Nonprofit Governance.” Public Administration Review 67 (3):458-473. doi: 10.2307/4624589.

Haines, Herbert H. 1984. “Black Radicalization and the Funding of Civil Rights.” Social Problems 32 (1):31-43.

Hellinger, Doug. 1987. “NGOs and the Large Aid Donors: Changing the Terms of Engagement.” World Development 15 (1):1.

Jalali, Rita. 2013. “Financing Empowerment? How Foreign Aid to Southern NGOs and Social Movements Undermines Grass-Roots Mobilization.” Sociology Compass 7 (1):55-73.

Jang, Hee Soun, and Richard C. Feiock. 2007. “Public versus Private Funding of Nonprofit Organizations: Implications for Collaboration.” Public Performance & Management Review 31 (2):174-190.

Jenkins, J. Craig, and Craig M. Eckert. 1986. “Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social MovementOrganizations in the Development of the Black Movement.” American Sociological Review 51 (6):812-829.

Jennifer E. Mosley. 2010. “Organizational Resources and Environmental Incentives: Understanding the Policy Advocacy Involvement of Human Service Nonprofits.” Social Service Review 84 (1):57-76. doi: 10.1086/652681.

Jenson, Jane, and Susan D. Phillips. 1996. “Regime Shift: New Citizenship Practices in Canada.” International Journal of Canadian Studies 14 (1):111-136.

Jenson, Jane, and Denis Saint-Martin. 2003. “New Routes to Social Cohesion? Citizenship and the Social Investment State.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 28 (1):77-99.

Knight, Melanie, and Kathleen Rodgers. 2012. ““The Government Is Operationalizing Neoliberalism”: Women’s Organizations, Status of Women Canada, and the Struggle for Progressive Social Change in Canada.” Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research 20 (4):266-282.

Kohl-Arenas, Erica. 2014. “Will the Revolution be Funded? Resource Mobilization and the California Farm Worker Movement.” Social Movement Studies 13 (4):482-498.

Krashinsky, Michael. 1990. “Management Implications of Government Funding of Nonprofit Organizations: Views from the United States and Canada.” Nonprofit Management 1 (1):39-54.

Laforest, Rachel, and Michael Orsini. 2005. “Evidence-based Engagement in the Voluntary Sector: Lessons from Canada.” Social Policy and Administration 39 (5):481-497.

Lampkin, Lynne, and Kamala Raghavan. 2008. “Organizational Characteristics, Financial Performance Measures, and Funding Sources of Faith Based Organizations.” Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 31 (3):332-355. doi: 10.2307/41288093.

Luksetich, William. 2007. “Government Funding and Nonprofit Organizations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 37 (3):434-454.

Masson, Dominique. 1999/2000. “Constituting ‘Post-Welfare State’ Welfare Arrangements: The Role of Women’s Movement Service Groups in Québec.” Resources for Feminist Research 27 (3-4):49-70.

Masson, Dominique. 2012. “Changing State Forms, Competing State Projects: Funding Women’s Organizations in Quebec.” Studies in Political Economy 89 (1):79-104.

McLevey, John. 2014. “Think Tanks, Funding, and the Politics of Policy Knowledge in Canada.” Canadian Sociological Association/La Soci´et´e canadienne de sociologie 51 (1):55-73.

Middleton, Stone Melissa, Mark A. Hager, and Jennifer J. Griffin. 2001. “Organizational Characteristics and Funding Environments: A Study of a Population of United Way-Affiliated Nonprofits.” Public Administration Review 61 (3):276-289. doi: 10.2307/977600.

O’Regan, Katherine, and Sharson Oster. 2002. “Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governonce? Evidence from New York City Nonprofit Controctors.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21 (3):359-379.

Ostrander, Susan A. 2007. “The Growth of Donor Control: Revisiting the Social Relations of Philanthropy.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 36 (2):356-72.

Peter, Karl. 1978. “Editorial: Multi-Cultural Politics, Money and the Conduct of Canadian Ethnic Studies.” Canadian Ethnic Studies Association Bulletin:2-3.

Phillips, Susan D. 2000. “More than Stakeholders: Reforming State-Voluntary Sector Relations.” Journal of Canadian Studies 35 (4):182-204.

Ramos, Howard. 2006. “What Causes Canadian Aboriginal Protest? Examining Resources, Opportunities and Identity, 1951–2000.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 31 (2):211-235.

Ramos, Howard. 2008. “Opportunity for Whom?: Political Opportunity and Critical Events in Canadian Aboriginal Mobilization, 1951-2000.” Social Forces 87 (2):795-824.

Reinelt, Claire. 1994. “Fostering Empowerment, Building Community: The Challenge for State-Funded Feminist Organizations.” Human Relations 47 (6):685-706.

Rodgers, Kathleen, and Melanie Knight. 2011. ““You just felt the collective wind being knocked out of us”: The deinstitutionalization of feminism and the survival of women’s organizing in Canada.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6):570-581.

Saidal, Judith R. 1991. “Resource Interdependence: The Relationship Between State Agencies and Nonprofit Organizations.” Public Administration Review 51 (6):543-555.

Saidel, Judith R. 1991. “Resource Interdependence: The Relationship Between State Agencies and Nonprofit Organizations.” Public Administration Review 51 (6):543-555.

Scheitle, Christopher P. 2009. “Identity and Government Funding in Christian Nonprofits.” Social Science Quarterly 90 (4):816-833. doi: 10.2307/42940642.

Shaw, Sally, and Justine B. Allen. 2006. “”We Actually Trust the Community:” Examining the Dynamics of a Nonprofit Funding Relationship in New Zealand.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 17 (3):211-220.

Smith, Miriam. 2005. “Diversity and Identity in the Non-profit Sector: Lessons from LGBT Organizing in Toronto.” Social Policy and Administration 39 (5):463-280.

Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1988. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.” American Sociological Review 53 (4):585-606.

Stasiulis, Daiva K. 1980. “The Political Structuring of Ethnic Community Action: A Reformulation.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 12 (3):20-46.

Tomiak, Julie. 2016. “Navigating the contradictions of the shadow state: the Assembly of First Nations, state funding, and scales of Indigenous resistance.” Studies in Political Economy 97 (3):217-233.

White, Deena. “Interest representation and organisation in civil society: Ontario and Quebec compared.” British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (2):199-232.

White, Deena. 2012. “Interest Representation and Organization in Civil Society: Ontario and Quebec compared.” British Journal of Canadian Studies 25 (1):199-229.


Anheier, Helmut K., and David C. Hammack, eds. 2010. American Foundations: Roles and Contributions. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Boris, Elizabeth T., and C. Eugene Steuerle, eds. 1999. Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict. Washington: Urban Institute Press.

Burlingame, Dwight F., and Warren F. Ilchman, eds. 1996. Alternative Revenue Sources: Prospects, Requirements and Concerns for Nonprofits. Edited by Robert E. Fogal and Dwight F. Burlingame. Vol. 12, New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising. Stow: Jossey-Bass.

Campbell, Robert M., and Leslie A. Pal. 1994. The Real Worlds of Canadian Politics: Cases in Process and Policy, Third Edition. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Clément, Dominique. 2008. Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-1982. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Cloward, R.A., and F.F. Piven. 1977. Poor Peoples Movements: How they Succeed, Why they Fail. New York: Pantheon.

Faber, Daniel, and Deborah McCarthy, eds. 2005. Foundations for Social Change: Critical Perspectives on Philanthropy and Popular Movements. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Grønbjerg, Kristen A. 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Harder, Lois. 2003. State of Struggle: Feminism and Politics in Alberta. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

Hayday, Matthew. 2005. Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Knopff, Rainer, and F. L. Morton. 2000. The Charter Revolution and the Court Party. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2009. The Conservative Federal Policy Agenda and the Voluntary Sector: On the Cutting Edge. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Laforest, Rachel. 2011. Voluntary Sector Organizations and the State: Building New Relations. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Laforest, Rachel, ed. 2013. Government-Nonprofit Relations in Times of Recession. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Lester, M. Salamon. 2012. The State of Nonprofit America. 2 ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

MacDonald, L. 1997. Supporting civil society: The political role of nongovernmental organizations in Central America. New York: MacMillan.

Matthews, Nancy. 1994. Confronting Rape: The Feminist Anti-Rape Movement and the State. New York: Routledge.

Ostrander, Susan A. 1995. Money for Change: Social Movement Philanthropy at Haymarket People’s Fund: Temple University Press.

Ottaway, Marina, and Thomas Carothers. 2012. Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Pal, Leslie. 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Salamon, Lester M. 1995. Partners in Public Service: Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Scott, Katherine. 2003. Funding Matters: The Impact of Canada’s New Funding Regime on Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine, and Deborah Pike. 2005. Funding Matters…For Our Communities: Challenges and Opportunities for Funding Innovation in Canada’s Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Scott, Katherine, Spyridoula Tsoukalas, Paul Roberts, and David Lasby. 2006. The Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Ontario. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Smith, Brian H. 1990. More Than Altruism: The Politics of Private and Foreign Aid. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Smith, Miriam. 2005. A Civil Society? Collective Actors in Canadian Political Life. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Smith, Miriam. 2007. Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada. Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Smith, Steven Rathgeb, and M. Lipsky. 1993. Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Tennant, Paul. 1990. Aboriginal Peoples and Politics: The Indian Land Question in British Columbia, 1849-1989. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Tillotson, Shirley. 2008. Contributing Citizens: Modern Charitable Fundraising and the Making of the Welfare State. Vancouer: UBC Press.

Wine, Jeri, and Janice Ristock, eds. 1991. Women and Social Change: Feminist Activism in Canada. Toronto: James Lorimar and Company.

Readings lists on the topic of state funding for social movements